A Mini Review of Natural Cellulosic Fibers

Extraction, Treatment and Characterization Methods


  • Yashaarth Kaushik Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
  • Nilakshman Sooriyaperakasam Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Colombo, Sri Lanka 10400 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8247-7931
  • Udit Rathee International Center for Automotive Research, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA 29634 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5941-1475
  • Nithesh Naik Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0356-7697




Natural fibers, Extraction methods, Surface modification, Characterization techniques, Sustainable materials


Natural cellulosic fibers have garnered significant attention in recent years due to their potential as eco-friendly and sustainable alternatives to synthetic materials in various industries, such as composite reinforcement, textiles, and packaging. The successful utilization of these fibers depends on understanding their properties, which can be achieved through comprehensive characterization methods. This mini-review discusses the extraction, treatment, and characterization of natural cellulosic fibers, focusing on the latest advancements in these areas. The extraction methods of natural cellulosic fibers, including chemical, physical, and biological processes, are discussed. The choice of extraction method impacts the fiber’s morphology, crystallinity, and purity, which ultimately affects its performance in different applications. Surface modification methods, including chemical treatments like treatment, acetylation, silane treatment, grafting, bleaching, and physical treatments such as corona treatment, plasma treatment, and UV/ozone treatment, are also explored. These treatments can enhance the compatibility and performance of natural cellulosic fibers in various applications. Characterization techniques for natural cellulosic fibers are reviewed, including mechanical properties testing (tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength), morphological analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)), and advanced techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, the application of the Weibull distribution for analyzing the tensile strength of natural cellulosic fibers is discussed, providing valuable information on the fiber’s strength distribution and reliability. This review highlights the importance of comprehensive characterization methods in understanding the properties and potential applications of natural cellulosic fibers. The continued development of these techniques will be crucial for the advancement and commercialization of these sustainable materials as eco-friendly alternatives to traditional materials in a wide range of industries.


M. P. Dicker, P. F. Duckworth, A. B. Baker, G. Francois, M. K. Hazzard, and P. M. Weaver, “Green composites: A review of material attributes and complementary applications,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 56, pp. 280–289, jan 2014.

H. S. S. Shekar and M. Ramachandra, “Green composites: a review,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 2518– 2526, 2018.

L. Y. Mwaikambo and M. P. Ansell, “Chemical modification of hemp, sisal, jute, and kapok fibers by alkalization,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 2222–2234, 2002.

K. L. Pickering, M. G. Efendy, and T. M. Le, “A review of recent developments in natural fibre composites and their mechan- ical performance,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 83, pp. 98–112, apr 2016.

A. K. Mohanty, M. Misra, and L. T. Drzal, Natural fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites. CRC press, 2005.

A. R. Bunsell, Handbook of properties of textile and technical fibres. Woodhead Publishing, 2018.

S. Rwawiire and B. Tomkova, “Morphological, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata Fibers,”

Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 12, pp. 201–210, may 2015.

P. Wambua, J. Ivens, and I. Verpoest, “Natural fibres: Can they replace glass in fibre reinforced plastics?,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 63, pp. 1259–1264, jul 2003.

V. Raghunathan, J. D. J. Dhilip, G. Subramanian, H. Narasimhan, C. Baskar, A. Murugesan, A. Khan, and A. A. Otaibi, “Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Physico-mechanical Characteristics of Natural Fibers Extracted from the Barks of Vachellia Farnesiana,” Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 19, pp. 5065–5075, dec 2022.

S. Manivel, N. Pannirselvam, R. Gopinath, and T. P. Sathishkumar, “Physico-mechanical, Chemical Composition and Thermal Properties of Cellulose Fiber from Hibiscus vitifolius Plant Stalk for Polymer Composites,” Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 19, pp. 6961–6976, dec 2022.

P. Venkateshwar Reddy, P. Rajendra Prasad, D. Mohana Krishnudu, and P. Hussain, “Influence of fillers on mechanical properties of prosopis juliflora fiber reinforced hybrid composites,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 19, pp. 384–387, 2019.

P. Madhu, S. Mavinkere Rangappa, A. Khan, A. Al Otaibi, S. A. Al-Zahrani, S. Pradeep, M. K. Gupta, P. Boonyaso- pon, and S. Siengchin, “Experimental investigation on the mechanical and morphological behavior of Prosopis juliflora bark fibers/E-glass/carbon fabrics reinforced hybrid polymeric composites for structural applications,” Polymer Composites, vol. 41, pp. 4983–4993, dec 2020.

V. Vignesh, A. N. Balaji, N. Nagaprasad, M. R. Sanjay, A. Khan, A. M. Asiri, G. M. Ashraf, and S. Siengchin, “Indian mallow fiber reinforced polyester composites: Mechanical and thermal properties,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 11, pp. 274–284, mar 2021.

B. A.N. and N. K.J., “Characterization of alkali treated and untreated new cellulosic fiber from Saharan aloe vera cactus leaves,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 174, pp. 200–208, oct 2017.

A. S. Madival, D. Doreswamy, S. Maddasani, M. Shettar, and R. Shetty, “Processing, Characterization of Furcraea foetida (FF) Fiber and Investigation of Physical/Mechanical Properties of FF/Epoxy Composite,” Polymers, vol. 14, p. 1476, apr 2022.

S. D. S. Kopparthy and A. N. Netravali, “Review: Green composites for structural applications,” Composites Part C: Open Access, vol. 6, p. 100169, oct 2021.

D. Malathi, A. K. Pulikkal, M. T. Ramesan, and S. Nagarajan, “Bio-fiber recovery from industrially discarded shoot waste (Cymbopogon nardus): a comprehensive study for reinforcement in sustainable composites,” Biomass Conversion and Biore- finery, pp. 1–12, mar 2023.

E. W. Gaba, B. O. Asimeng, E. E. Kaufmann, S. K. Katu, E. J. Foster, and E. K. Tiburu, “Mechanical and structural charac- terization of pineapple leaf fiber,” Fibers, vol. 9, p. 51, aug 2021.

P. Manimaran, G. P. Pillai, V. Vignesh, and M. Prithiviraj, “Characterization of natural cellulosic fibers from Nendran Banana Peduncle plants,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 162, pp. 1807–1815, nov 2020.

N. Saba, M. Jawaid, O. Y. Alothman, and M. T. Paridah, “A review on dynamic mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 106, pp. 149–159, mar 2016.

V. S. Sreenivasan, S. Somasundaram, D. Ravindran, V. Manikandan, and R. Narayanasamy, “Microstructural, physico- chemical and mechanical characterisation of Sansevieria cylindrica fibres - An exploratory investigation,” Materials and Design, vol. 32, pp. 453–461, jan 2011.

S. Kalia, B. S. Kaith, and I. Kaur, “Pretreatments of natural fibers and their application as reinforcing material in polymer composites-a review,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 49, pp. 1253–1272, jul 2009.

S. Arora, M. Kumar, and G. P. Dubey, “Thermal decomposition kinetics of rice husk: Activation energy with dynamic thermogravimetric analysis,” Journal of the Energy Institute, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 138–143, 2009.

N. E. Zafeiropoulos, Interface engineering of natural fibre composites for maximum performance. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011.

N. I. N. Haris, M. Z. Hassan, R. A. Ilyas, M. A. Suhot, S. M. Sapuan, R. Dolah, R. Mohammad, and M. R. Asyraf, “Dynamic mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites: a review,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 19, pp. 167–182, jul 2022.

F. L. Leite, P. S. P. Herrmann, A. L. Da Ro´z, F. C. Ferreira, A. A. S. Curvelo, and L. H. C. Mattoso, “Investigation of Sisal Fibers by Atomic Force Microscopy: Morphological and Adhesive Characteristics,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotech- nology, vol. 6, pp. 2354–2361, aug 2006.

M. Asim, K. Abdan, M. Jawaid, M. Nasir, Z. Dashtizadeh, M. R. Ishak, M. E. Hoque, and Y. Deng, “A review on pineapple leaves fibre and its composites,” International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2015, pp. 1–16, 2015.

V. G. Geethamma, R. Joseph, and S. Thomas, “Short coir fiber-reinforced natural rubber composites: Effects of fiber length, orientation, and alkali treatment,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 55, pp. 583–594, jan 1995.

L. Segal, J. J. Creely, A. E. Martin, and C. M. Conrad, “An Empirical Method for Estimating the Degree of Crystallinity of Native Cellulose Using the X-Ray Diffractometer,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 29, pp. 786–794, oct 1959.

S. Sathish, N. Karthi, L. Prabhu, S. Gokulkumar, D. Balaji, N. Vigneshkumar, T. S. Ajeem Farhan, A. Akilkumar, and V. P. Dinesh, “A review of natural fiber composites: Extraction methods, chemical treatments and applications,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 45, pp. 8017–8023, 2021.

P. Jagadeesh, M. Puttegowda, S. Mavinkere Rangappa, and S. Siengchin, “A review on extraction, chemical treatment, char- acterization of natural fibers and its composites for potential applications,” Polymer Composites, vol. 42, pp. 6239–6264, dec 2021.

S. Mukhopadhyay and R. Fangueiro, “Physical modification of natural fibers and thermoplastic films for composites - A review,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 22, pp. 135–162, mar 2009.

J. Biagiotti, D. Puglia, and J. M. Kenny, “A review on natural fibre-based composites - Part I: Structure, processing and properties of vegetable fibres,” Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 1, pp. 37–68, oct 2004.

M. Zimniewska, “Hemp Fibre Properties and Processing Target Textile: A Review,” Materials, vol. 15, p. 1901, mar 2022.

P. Lyu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, and C. Hurren, “Degumming methods for bast fibers—A mini review,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 174, p. 114158, dec 2021.

A. P. Singh and T. Singh, “Biotechnological applications of wood-rotting fungi: A review,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 62,

pp. 198–206, mar 2014.

D. Mboowa, “A review of the traditional pulping methods and the recent improvements in the pulping processes,” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, pp. 1–12, jan 2021.

K. P. Kumar and A. S. J. Sekaran, “Some natural fibers used in polymer composites and their extraction processes: A review,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 33, pp. 1879–1892, oct 2014.

A. Karimah, M. R. Ridho, S. S. Munawar, D. S. Adi, Ismadi, R. Damayanti, B. Subiyanto, W. Fatriasari, and A. Fudholi, “A review on natural fibers for development of eco-friendly bio-composite: characteristics, and utilizations,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 13, pp. 2442–2458, jul 2021.

O. D. Biko, M. Viljoen-Bloom, and W. H. van Zyl, “Microbial lignin peroxidases: Applications, production challenges and future perspectives,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 141, p. 109669, nov 2020.

Z. Wu, K. Peng, Y. Zhang, M. Wang, C. Yong, L. Chen, P. Qu, H. Huang, E. Sun, and M. Pan, “Lignocellulose dissociation with biological pretreatment towards the biochemical platform: A review,” Materials Today Bio, vol. 16, p. 100445, dec 2022.

M. Tesfa, A. Dia, M. Ollivier, I. D. Osorio-Leon, and R. Marsac, “An easy spectrophotometric acid-base titration protocol for dissolved organic matter,” MethodsX, vol. 9, p. 101721, 2022.

L. Qiu, S. Wang, Y. Ma, and F. Li, “Nanofluid and nanopowders,” in Micro and Nano Thermal Transport: Characterization, Measurement, and Mechanism, pp. 247–284, Elsevier, 2022.

Y. Assadi, M. A. Farajzadeh, and A. Bidari, “Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction,” 2012.

E. Lau, “Preformulation studies,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. C, pp. 173–233, 2001.

O. D. Neikov, D. V. Lotsko, and V. G. Gopienko, “Powder characterization and testing,” Handbook of Non-Ferrous Metal Powders: Technologies and Applications, pp. 5–44, 2009.

M. M. Alam, M. Maniruzzaman, and M. M. Morshed, “Application and Advances in Microprocessing of Natural Fiber (Jute)-Based Composites,” Comprehensive Materials Processing, vol. 7, pp. 243–260, 2014.

T. Mudalige, H. Qu, D. Van Haute, S. M. Ansar, A. Paredes, and T. Ingle, “Characterization of Nanomaterials: Tools and Challenges,” Nanomaterials for Food Applications, pp. 313–353, 2018.

C. Horva´th, “High-performance liquid chromatography: advances and perspectives,” 2013.

A. M. Siouffi, “High performance liquid chromatography,” Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering - 4 Volume Set, vol. 75, no. Sup2, pp. 859–900, 2005.

A. B. Kanu, “Recent developments in sample preparation techniques combined with high-performance liquid chromatogra- phy: A critical review,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1654, p. 462444, 2021.

M. Kasˇpar and P. Cˇ esla, “Characterization of Balsamic Vinegars Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography,” Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 18, p. 8946, 2022.

C. M. Conrad, “Determination of Wax in Cotton Fiber a New Alcohol Extraction Method,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry - Analytical Edition, vol. 16, pp. 745–748, dec 1944.

S. Park, D. K. Johnson, C. I. Ishizawa, P. A. Parilla, and M. F. Davis, “Measuring the crystallinity index of cellulose by solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance,” Cellulose, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 641–647, 2009.

M. E. H. E. Nokab, M. H. Habib, Y. A. Alassmy, M. M. Abduljawad, K. M. Alshamrani, and K. O. Sebakhy, “Solid State NMR a Powerful Technique for Investigating Sustainable/Renewable Cellulose-Based Materials,” Polymers, vol. 14, no. 5, p. 1049, 2022.

R. S. Dassanayake, N. Dissanayake, J. S. Fierro, N. Abidi, E. L. Quitevis, K. Boggavarappu, and V. D. Thalangamaarachchige, “Characterization of cellulose nanocrystals by current spectroscopic techniques,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 180–205, 2023.

W. Zhao, L. D. Fernando, A. Kirui, F. Deligey, and T. Wang, “Solid-state NMR of plant and fungal cell walls: A critical review,” Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, vol. 107, p. 101660, 2020.

P. A. Baron, “Measurement of airborne fibers: A review,” Industrial Health, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 39–50, 2001.

J. Summerscales, A. Virk, and W. Hall, “A review of bast fibres and their composites: Part 3 - Modelling,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 132–139, 2013.

L. C. Barbosa, C. Lorrette, S. Le Bras, E. Baranger, and J. Lamon, “Tensile strength analysis and fractography on single nuclear grade SiC fibers at room temperature,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 576, p. 154256, 2023.

Y. Swolfs, I. Verpoest, and L. Gorbatikh, “A review of input data and modelling assumptions in longitudinal strength models for unidirectional fibre-reinforced composites,” Composite Structures, vol. 150, pp. 153–172, 2016.

A. Arul Marcel Moshi, D. Ravindran, S. R. Sundara Bharathi, V. Suganthan, and G. Kennady Shaju Singh, “Characterization of New Natural Cellulosic Fibers-A Comprehensive Review,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 574, p. 12013, IOP Publishing, 2019.

I. P. Lokantara, N. P. G. Suardana, I. W. Surata, and I. N. S. Winaya, “a Review on Natural Fibers: Extraction Process and Properties of Grass Fibers,” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (Ijmet), vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 84–91, 2020.

S. I. Magagula, M. J. Mochane, G. G. Lenetha, J. S. Sefadi, T. H. Mokhothu, and T. C. Mokhena, “The effect of alkaline treatment on natural fibers/biopolymer composites,” in Surface Treatment Methods of Natural Fibres and their Effects on Biocomposites, pp. 19–45, Elsevier, 2022.

D. P. Ferreira, J. Cruz, and R. Fangueiro, “Surface modification of natural fibers in polymer composites,” in Green Composites for Automotive Applications, pp. 3–41, Elsevier, 2018.

S. Parveen, S. Rana, and R. Fangueiro, “Macro- and nanodimensional plant fiber reinforcements for cementitious compos- ites,” in Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites, pp. 343–382, Elsevier, 2017.

S. A. Roslan, Z. A. Rasid, and M. Z. Hassan, “Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 344, p. 12008, IOP Publishing, 2018.

B. D. Ratner, A. S. Hoffman, and S. L. McArthur, “Physicochemical Surface Modification of Materials Used in Medicine,” in Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine, pp. 487–505, Elsevier, 2020.

X. Li, L. G. Tabil, and S. Panigrahi, “Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: A review,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2007.

M. M. Kabir, H. Wang, K. T. Lau, and F. Cardona, “Chemical treatments on plant-based natural fibre reinforced polymer composites: An overview,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 2883–2892, 2012.

R. Latif, S. Wakeel, N. Zaman Khan, A. Noor Siddiquee, S. Lal Verma, and Z. Akhtar Khan, “Surface treatments of plant fibers and their effects on mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites: A review,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 38, pp. 15–30, jan 2019.

S. Venkatarajan and A. Athijayamani, “An overview on natural cellulose fiber reinforced polymer composites,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 37, no. Part 2, pp. 3620–3624, 2020.

R. Khan, R. Jolly, T. Fatima, and M. Shakir, “Extraction processes for deriving cellulose: A comprehensive review on green approaches,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 2069–2090, 2022.

R. Z. Khoo, W. S. Chow, and H. Ismail, “Sugarcane bagasse fiber and its cellulose nanocrystals for polymer reinforcement and heavy metal adsorbent: a review,” Cellulose, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 4303–4330, 2018.

N. Sharma, N. K. Bhardwaj, and R. B. P. Singh, “Environmental issues of pulp bleaching and prospects of peracetic acid pulp bleaching: A review,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 256, p. 120338, 2020.

T. A. Khattab, M. S. Abdelrahman, and M. Rehan, “Textile dyeing industry: environmental impacts and remediation,” Envi- ronmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 3803–3818, 2020.

N. M. Stark and L. M. Matuana, “Trends in sustainable biobased packaging materials: a mini review,” Materials Today Sustainability, vol. 15, p. 100084, 2021.

M. K. Zahran and H. B. Ahmed, “A greener approach for full flax bleaching,” Journal of the Textile Institute, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 674–678, 2010.

J. G. March and B. M. Simonet, “A green method for the determination of hypochlorite in bleaching products based on its native absorbance,” Talanta, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 232–236, 2007.

S. Dursun and S. Z. Yıldız, “Eco-Friendly Bleaching of Cotton Fabrics Without Heating Using Direct Process Water in the Presence of Sodium Chlorite and Phosphonate,” Journal of Natural Fibers, pp. 1–14, 2022.

A. Kumar, “Biobleaching: An eco-friendly approach to reduce chemical consumption and pollutants generation,” Green Pulp and Paper Industry: Biotechnology for Ecofriendly Processing, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 93–128, 2021.

O. Faruk Dr and M. S. Ain, “Biofiber reinforced polymer composites for structural applications,” in Developments in Fiber- Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, pp. 18–53, Elsevier, 2013.

Q. C. Sun, D. D. Zhang, and L. C. Wadsworth, “Corona treatment on polyolefin films,” Tappi Journal, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 177– 183, 1998.

M. Dalvi-Isfahan, M. Havet, N. Hamdami, and A. Le-Bail, “Recent advances of high voltage electric field technology and its application in food processing: A review with a focus on corona discharge and static electric field,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 353, p. 111551, 2023.

A. Zille, F. R. Oliveira, and P. A. P. Souto, “Plasma treatment in textile industry,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 98–131, 2015.

S. Kalia, K. Thakur, A. Celli, M. A. Kiechel, and C. L. Schauer, “Surface modification of plant fibers using environment friendly methods for their application in polymer composites, textile industry and antimicrobial activities: A review,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 97–112, 2013.

J. Sˇimoncˇicova´, S. Krysˇtofova´, V. Medvecka´, K. Dˇ urisˇova´, and B. Kalinˇa´kova´, “Technical applications of plasma treatments: current state and perspectives,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 103, no. 13, pp. 5117–5129, 2019.

J. Profili, S. Asadollahi, P. Vinchon, A. Dorris, S. Beck, A. Sarkassian, and L. Stafford, “Recent progress on organosilicon coatings deposited on bleached unrefined Kraft paper by non-thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 147, p. 105865, 2020.

S. K. Nemani, R. K. Annavarapu, B. Mohammadian, A. Raiyan, J. Heil, M. A. Haque, A. Abdelaal, and H. Sojoudi, “Surface modification of polymers: methods and applications,” Advanced Materials Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 24, p. 1801247, 2018.

R. N. Marcus, C. G. Joseph, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, S. Soloi, M. H. A. Majid, Z. Jamain, S. A. M. Ali, V. Vijayan, and C. K. Pang, “Current Trends on the Utilization of Ozonation Treatment Process for the Remediation of Dye Wastewater: A Short Review,” Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 113–124, 2022.

C. Gleissner, J. Landsiedel, T. Bechtold, and T. Pham, “Surface Activation of High Performance Polymer Fibers: A Review,” Polymer Reviews, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 757–788, 2022.

D. Hetemi and J. Pinson, “Surface functionalisation of polymers,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 46, no. 19, pp. 5701–5713, 2017.

X. Cao, C. Tan, X. Zhang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Solution-processed two-dimensional metal dichalcogenide-based nano- materials for energy storage and conversion,” Advanced Materials, vol. 28, no. 29, pp. 6167–6196, 2016.

S. Purwar, “Application of natural dye on synthetic fabrics,” International Journal of Home Science, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 283– 287, 2016.

A. Zaman, F. Huang, M. Jiang, W. Wei, and Z. Zhou, “Preparation, Properties, and Applications of Natural Cellulosic Aerogels: A Review,” Energy and Built Environment, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 60–76, 2020.

S. Venkatarajan, C. Subbu, A. Athijayamani, and R. Muthuraja, “Mechanical properties of natural cellulose fibers reinforced polymer composites - 2015-2020: A review,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 47, pp. 1017–1024, 2021.

G. Rajeshkumar, K. Naveen Kumar, M. Aravind, S. Santhosh, T. K. Gowtham Keerthi, and S. Arvindh Seshadri, “A Com- prehensive Review on Mechanical Properties of Natural Cellulosic Fiber Reinforced PLA Composites,” Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, pp. 227–237, 2021.

T. P. Sathishkumar, P. Navaneethakrishnan, S. Shankar, R. Rajasekar, and N. Rajini, “Characterization of natural fiber and composites - A review,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 32, no. 19, pp. 1457–1476, 2013.

P. Jagadeesh, M. Puttegowda, P. Boonyasopon, S. M. Rangappa, A. Khan, and S. Siengchin, “Recent developments and challenges in natural fiber composites: A review,” Polymer Composites, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 2545–2561, 2022.

C. S. Malalli and B. R. Ramji, “Mechanical characterization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites and their appli- cation in Prosthesis: A review,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 62, pp. 3435–3443, 2022.

L. Prabhu, V. Krishnaraj, S. Sathish, S. Gokulkumar, N. Karthi, L. Rajeshkumar, D. Balaji, N. Vigneshkumar, and K. S. Elango, “A review on natural fiber reinforced hybrid composites: Chemical treatments, manufacturing methods and potential applications,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 45, pp. 8080–8085, 2021.

I. Chakraborty, S. Rongpipi, I. Govindaraju, B. Rakesh, S. S. Mal, E. W. Gomez, E. D. Gomez, R. D. Kalita, Y. Nath, and N. Mazumder, “An insight into microscopy and analytical techniques for morphological, structural, chemical, and thermal characterization of cellulose,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 1990–2015, 2022.

S. F. Hamad, N. Stehling, C. Holland, J. P. Foreman, and C. Rodenburg, “Low-Voltage SEM of Natural Plant Fibers: Mi- crostructure Properties (Surface and Cross-Section) and their Link to the Tensile Properties,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 200, pp. 295–302, 2017.

S. Nam, B. D. Condon, C. D. Delhom, and K. R. Fontenot, “Silver-cotton nanocomposites: Nano-design of microfibrillar structure causes morphological changes and increased tenacity,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, p. 37320, nov 2016.

J. L. Guimara˜es, E. Frollini, C. G. da Silva, F. Wypych, and K. G. Satyanarayana, “Characterization of banana, sugarcane bagasse and sponge gourd fibers of Brazil,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 407–415, 2009.

J. L. Xu, K. V. Thomas, Z. Luo, and A. A. Gowen, “FTIR and Raman imaging for microplastics analysis: State of the art, challenges and prospects,” TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 119, p. 115629, 2019.

Y. Liu, “Recent progress in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers,” Materials, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 299–313, 2013.

A. Geremew, P. De Winne, T. Adugna, and H. De Backer, “An overview of the characterization of natural cellulosic fibers,” Key Engineering Materials, vol. 881 KEM, pp. 107–116, 2021.

V. Jeyabalaji, G. R. Kannan, P. Ganeshan, K. Raja, B. NagarajaGanesh, and P. Raju, “Extraction and Characterization Studies of Cellulose Derived from the Roots of Acalypha Indica L,” Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 4544–4556, 2022.

Y. Seki, F. Selli, U¨ . H. Erdog˘an, M. Atagu¨r, and M. O¨ . Seydibeyog˘lu, “A review on alternative raw materials for sustainable production: novel plant fibers,” Cellulose, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 4877–4918, 2022.

S. K. Ramamoorthy, D. A˚ kesson, M. Skrifvars, and B. Baghaei, “Preparation and characterization of biobased thermoset polymers from renewable resources and their use in composites,” in Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials (G. P. Chaudhary and M. K. Sharma, eds.), vol. 1-8, pp. 425–457, Wiley, jun 2017.




How to Cite

Y. Kaushik, N. Sooriyaperakasam, U. Rathee, and N. Naik, “A Mini Review of Natural Cellulosic Fibers: Extraction, Treatment and Characterization Methods”, J. Comput. Mech. Manag, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 32–47, Jun. 2023.



Mini Reviews


Received 2023-04-14
Accepted 2023-05-01
Published 2023-06-06

Most read articles by the same author(s)