Leveraging Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions for Devising COVID-19 Control Strategies


  • Dasharathraj K Shetty Department of Data Science and Computer Applications, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5021-4029
  • Chetana Balakrishna Maddodi School of Management, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0228-6164
  • BM Zeeshan Hameed iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Department of Urology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2904-351X
  • Milap Shah iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Robotics and Urooncology, Max Hospital and Max Institute of Cancer Care, New Delhi, India 110024 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1668-7006
  • Sufyan Ibrahim iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, United States 55902 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9127-2738
  • Anshika Sharma Department of Psychology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India 201313
  • Rahul Paul iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States MA 02115
  • Piotr Chłosta Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Kraków, Poland 31-008 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5919-4060
  • Bhaskar Somani iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom SO16 6YD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6248-6478




COVID-19, Cultural dimensions, Hofstede's model, Cultural backgrounds, Pandemic handling


The COVID-19 Pandemic has caused unprecedented global challenges, including significant socioeconomic disruptions and the closure of schools and universities in almost all countries. Understanding the role of culture in shaping individual and societal responses to the Pandemic is crucial. This review article examines the applicability of Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework in devising effective COVID-19 control strategies. The article provides an overview of each dimension and its impact on the implementation of COVID-19 control strategies. It also includes a case analysis of four countries - India, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Poland - to illustrate the interplay between culture and COVID-19 control strategies. The insights provided by Hofstede's framework and the case analysis demonstrate that cultural differences can significantly impact the success of COVID-19 control strategies. By taking these differences into account, governments and public health authorities can improve the effectiveness of their COVID-19 control measures.

Author Biographies

Dasharathraj K Shetty, Department of Data Science and Computer Applications, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104

Dr. Dasharathraj K Shetty is a multi-faceted professional with a distinguished career in education, entrepreneurship, and writing. As an Associate Professor in the Department of Data Science and Computer Applications at MIT Manipal, he has been actively involved in teaching and research in the field of computer science. In addition to his academic role, Dr. Shetty is an accomplished author and columnist. He has recently authored the book "Learning Like a Lion," which explores the principles of learning and personal growth. He is also a social entrepreneur and has made significant contributions to society through his various initiatives. Dr. Shetty's academic achievements are notable, having earned three post-graduate degrees in MBA (Finance), MPhil (Management), and MTech (Computer Science and Engineering). He has also earned his PhD from the Computer Science & Engineering Department at MIT-MAHE(Deemed to be University). He has earned several certifications, including the Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist, Dale Carnegie High Impact Teaching Skills, AIMA Certified Management Trainer, and Ramakrishna Bajaj National Quality Award Examiner.Dr. Shetty's commitment to education and social welfare is further reflected in his role as the Secretary-General of Indian Bureau of Administrators and Technocrats. With his vast experience and expertise, Dr. Shetty continues to make significant contributions to the fields of education, entrepreneurship, and technology.


Chetana Balakrishna Maddodi, School of Management, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104

Prof. Chetana Maddodi is a highly experienced academic and administrator who has made significant contributions to the field of marketing. As an Assistant Professor - Senior Scale in the Marketing area at the Manipal Institute of Management since 2014, she has been actively involved in teaching and research in the areas of digital marketing, brand management, and marketing management. Prior to her academic career, Prof. Chetana had over 15 years of administrative experience, having worked at MAHE. Her rich industry experience gives her unique insights into the practical aspects of marketing and management. Prof. Chetana's research interests are focused on mobile advertising and consumer behavior, which are two rapidly evolving areas in marketing. Her expertise in these areas has made her a sought-after speaker and consultant for businesses looking to develop effective mobile advertising strategies and understand consumer behavior. Overall, Prof. Chetana's deep knowledge of marketing and her experience in both academia and industry make her a valuable asset to the Manipal Institute of Management and the broader marketing community.


BM Zeeshan Hameed, iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Department of Urology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002

Dr. BM Zeeshan Hameed is a highly accomplished Professor of Urology at Father Muller Medical College in Mangalore, India. He completed his M.B.B.S, M.S.(Surgery), and MCh (Urology) from Kasturba Medical College, Manipal under Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India. Dr. Hameed has made significant contributions to the field of urology through his research, with numerous publications on topics such as AI, bladder cancer, and stone disease. He also has four patents to his credit. In addition to his research, Dr. Hameed has a keen interest in medical innovations. He has invented the 'Zedd' scissors and 'Rector' scissors needle system, which are used for the treatment of bladder tumors. He received the BIRAC BIG-16 funding of 5 million rupees in 2020 for his innovative inventions. Dr. Hameed has also launched a novel smartphone application called UROSTENTZ, which is used to track ureteric stents and stent-related symptoms. Dr. Hameed is highly regarded in the medical community and has received various awards for his innovations and research at both national and international events. He is one of the core members of the EAU-YAU endourology working group, secretary of the i-TRUE (International training and research in uro-oncology and endourology) group, and program director for the non-profit UROGRIPP global teaching program.


Sufyan Ibrahim, iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, United States 55902

Sufyan Ibrahim is a highly accomplished postdoctoral research fellow at the Neuro-Informatics Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. He recently graduated from Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, MAHE with an MBBS degree, where he topped the university examination for four consecutive years. As the recipient of the prestigious TMA Pai Gold Medal for the best outgoing student of the year 2020-21, Sufyan has demonstrated exceptional academic excellence and commitment to his field. He is an avid quizzer, ardent researcher, sports fanatic, and conscientious seeker of knowledge. With his impressive track record and passion for research, Sufyan is well-positioned to make significant contributions to the field of neurosurgery and beyond.


Piotr Chłosta, Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Kraków, Poland 31-008

Dr. Piotr L. Chlosta is a highly accomplished urologist, holding the position of Professor of Urology and Chairman of the Department of Urology at Jagiellonian University in Krakow. He is a renowned urological oncology and laparoscopy expert, having authored numerous original and peer-reviewed articles, books, and book chapters. Dr. Chlosta is a member of several scientific associations, including the European Association of Urology, the American Urological Association, and the Societé Internationale d'Urologie, among others. He is also the President of the Polish Urological Association and a Board Member of the European Section of Uro-Oncology. In addition to his academic and research work, Dr. Chlosta is a visiting professor at the Centre of Postgraduate Medicine Education in Warsaw and a lecturer at the School of Urology Committee of Education of the Polish Urological Association.


Bhaskar Somani, iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal, Karnataka, India 576104; Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom SO16 6YD

Dr. Bhaskar Somani is a highly accomplished and respected Professor of Urology who has made significant contributions to the field. With a wealth of experience and expertise, he has coordinated the world's largest hands-on-training simulation course for urology, known as EAU-EUREP. Dr. Somani has an impressive publication record, having authored over 450 scientific papers and 10 book chapters. He is a sought-after speaker and has been invited to perform live surgeries and moderations in more than 30 countries around the globe. In addition to his research and academic activities, Dr. Somani has also raised a grant income of £3.2 million, demonstrating his ability to secure funding for his projects. He is currently serving as the Editor in Chief of the Journal of Clinical Urology, a role that reflects his standing in the field. Dr. Somani's achievements have been recognized through several awards, including the prestigious Endourology society "Arthur Smith" award in 2020 and the BAUS "Golden Telescope" award in 2021. He holds a range of qualifications, including MRCS, DM, FFSTEd, FEBU, and FRCS (Urol). His clinical areas of interest include academic urology, endourology, general urology, and uro-oncology.



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How to Cite

D. K Shetty, “Leveraging Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions for Devising COVID-19 Control Strategies”, J. Comput. Mech. Manag, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 55–68, Feb. 2023.



Review Articles


Received 2022-11-22
Accepted 2023-02-23
Published 2023-02-28

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