The Study of the Value of π Probability Sampling by Testing Hypothesis and Experimentally


  • Sanjay B Kulkarni Department of First Year Engineering, Hope Foundation’s Finolex Academy of Management and Technology, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India, 415639
  • Sandeep Kulkarni Tata Consultancy Services, Pune, Maharashtra, India



Random Number, Triplets, Non-parametric Tests, Friedman’s Test, Chi-square Test


This study evaluated the value of π using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method and compared the results with experimental values. The experimental value of π was determined by considering a unit circle |z| = 1 centered at the origin, inscribed within a square with vertices (0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1), and (0, 1). Points were randomly generated within the square, where points satisfying |z| ≤ 1 lay within the circle, and those with |z| ≥ 1 lay outside the circle but within the square. By selecting large numbers of random pairs and determining their positions relative to the circle, the ratio π = 4n/N  was calculated, where N was the total number of points and n was the number of points within the circle. Larger sample sizes yielded values of π closer to the true value. The distribution of Monte Carlo Simulation results, using 20 triplets of random numbers, was examined with non-parametric tests such as Friedman’s Test. Ranks were assigned to the 20 random numbers row-wise for each triplet. The null hypothesis, asserting that all triplets had identical effects, was tested and showed significant differences at the 5% level. Additionally, the distribution was tested for goodness of fit using a Chi-Square Test at a 5% significance level. Results indicated that the triplets of random numbers conformed to the expected distribution.


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How to Cite

S. B. Kulkarni and S. Kulkarni, “The Study of the Value of π Probability Sampling by Testing Hypothesis and Experimentally”, J. Comput. Mech. Manag, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 22–29, Feb. 2024.



Original Articles


Received 2023-09-02
Accepted 2023-12-16
Published 2024-02-29